Coal country opponents of the rules say they would kill jobs in the coal industry, which is reeling from competition from cleaner-burning natural gas.
They unveiled legislation Monday to overturn December regulations through a process that permits Congress to revoke recently-issued rules in a manner that is immune to filibusters by Senate Democrats.
The stream protection rules would be the first of several recent Obama administration rules to be targeted by using the procedures.
Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell says the "'stream buffer' rule is a harmful regulation that unfairly targets coal jobs."
The regulations would tighten exceptions to a rule that requires a 100-foot buffer between coal mining and streams.